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From exclusion to citizenship: historical discrimination against Chinese people in Vancouver

從排華到平等公民權利:檢討早期華裔居民面對溫哥華市的歧視

Historical discrimination against Chinese people

By City of Vancouver

 

  • Vancouver residents of Chinese descent in the early days 早期的華裔溫哥華居民

    By City of Vancouver

  • Council and community leaders with apology text 市議會議員與社區領袖展示道歉文本

    By City of Vancouver

Official apology for historical discrimination delivered at special City Council Meeting in Chinatown

On April 22, 2018, Vancouver City Council convened a special meeting in Chinatown where Mayor Gregor Robertson delivered a formal apology on behalf of the City of Vancouver for past discrimination against residents of Chinese descent. 

The apology acknowledged the wrongdoings of past legislation, regulations, and policies of previous Vancouver City Councils. The special Council Meeting was attended by over 500 members of the Chinese community, with hundreds more who watched the event on a screen at the Keefer Street Memorial Square. 

City of Vancouver's official apology to the Chinese community - English  (40 KB)

溫市議會在唐人街舉行特別會議
為歷史上歧視華人作出正式道歉

溫哥華市議會在2018年4月22日於唐人街舉行了一個特別會議﹐由市長羅品信代表市政府就早期華裔居民受到的歧視作出正式道歉。

該項道歉承認過往的溫市議會曾經實施法例﹑規條及政策而作出了錯誤的行為。當日出席特別會議的華裔社區人士超過500人﹐另外還有數百人在場外奇花街紀念廣場設置的大銀幕上觀看會議進行。

溫哥華市就早期歧視華裔歷史的正式道歉  (239 KB)
 

Background

For the first sixty years of the City of Vancouver’s history, racial prejudice and discrimination against Chinese people was commonplace. Through City Council motions, bylaws and other restrictive measures, the Chinese community suffered the painful consequences of lawful discrimination. 

City Council in 2014 passed a motion directing staff to conduct research into discriminatory laws, regulations, and policies in place in the city between 1886 and 1947. 

Between 2015 and 2016, City staff carried out preliminary research and initial consultations with local historians and other people with lived experience and knowledge of the issues.  

Four areas of historical discrimination against Chinese residents in Vancouver were identified during the research and consultations:

  • Voting rights and citizenship
  • Exclusion from immigration
  • Restricting livelihoods in the areas of industry, business, and labour
  • Segregation in housing and public spaces

In 2017, an Advisory Group comprised of retired judges, former City Councillors, community elders and advocates, historians, veterans and their descendants was formed to guide a process of public consultation and recommend next steps.

The City also held several community forums in May to inform interested public and stakeholders on the preliminary research findings, to gather feedback on potential steps and actions in support of reconciliation and to prevent discrimination from taking root in the future.

A final report PDF file (3 MB), which was adopted by City Council in November 2017, included the following recommendations:

  1. Acknowledge past discrimination and offer of a formal apology
  2. Strengthen relations with the Chinese Canadian community through a range of legacy actions to raise awareness of the historical discrimination towards the Chinese and give life and sustenance to the apology. The three recommended legacy action areas are:
    • Initiate and sustain the legacy: to establish a Legacy Working Group to oversee the implementation of the proposed actions
    • Educate and outreach: to reach out and engage both Chinese and non-Chinese residents in this process through education, dialogue and stronger social and cultural programming
    • To conserve, commemorate and enhance the living cultural heritage and assets of Chinatown by: a) initiating a process towards a UNESCO World Heritage designation for Chinatown; b) creating a Cultural Heritage Asset Management Plan to support the UNESCO process.

City staff concluded in their report that the Historical Discrimination against Chinese (HDC) initiative has identified new ideas and actions which the City the community can work on together in support of building stronger and more resilient communities.

To this end and in support of the City’s efforts as a City of Reconciliation, a dedicated Chinatown Transformation Team has been formed to work with community stakeholders to help create a strategy that focuses on protecting and enhancing Chinatown’s living heritage and cultural assets.

背景資料

在溫哥華市最初60年的歷史之中,華裔居民蒙受種族歧視的個案比比皆是。華人社區由於當時市議會通過的動議﹑附例和其他限制措施受到了這些合法歧視所帶來的傷害。

市議會有見及此﹐在2014年時通過了一項動議﹐指示市府職員就1886至1947年期間實施的歧視性法例﹑規條及政策進行研究。

負責的職員在2015及2016年時進行了初步研究﹐並諮詢了多位本地歷史學家及其他對該議題有親身體驗的人士。

他們在進行研究及諮詢時確認了以下四個歷史上歧視華人的範疇﹕

  1. 投票權及公民權利被剝奪

  2. 在移民方面實施限制

  3. 從事工﹑商業及勞工等謀生方面的限制

  4. 在房屋及使用公共設施方面實施隔離政策

到了2017年﹐一個由多位退休法官﹑前市議員﹑社區領袖及倡權人士﹑歷史學家﹑退伍軍人及其後裔組成的顧問委員會宣佈成立﹐為制定諮詢程序及提供建議作出指引。

市府在同年5月時舉行了數個社區論壇﹐與公眾人士及持份者分享初步研究的結果﹐ 並且收集他們對支持和解及避免歧視行為在將來紮根等議題的意見。職員的最終報告在2017年11月獲市議會接納﹐其中所提出的建議包括﹕

  1. 承認過往的歧視行為並作出正式道歉

  2. 通過採取一系列的傳統歷史行動﹐增加公眾對歷史上歧視華人的認知﹐及讓道歉方案得到生命力和有實質意義﹐從而加強與華人社區的關係。這些傳統歷史行動包括了三個範疇﹕

    • 開展及支持傳統歷史保育﹕成立一個傳統歷史工作小組統籌建議行動的執行

    • 進行教育及外展工作﹕藉著教育﹑對話及加強社會和文化方案﹐向華裔及非華裔人士推廣並讓他們得到參與。

    • 藉著a) 啟動程序向聯合國教科文組織(UNESCO)申請將唐人街列為世界文化遺產﹔及b)制定一項「生活文化遺產及資產管理計劃」以支援申遺行動﹐從而保育﹑表揚及增強唐人街的生活遺產及文化資產。

市府職員在報告中指出﹐在進行歷史上歧視華裔居民檢討過程中﹐發現了一些新的構思及行動可以讓市府和社區共同合作﹐以幫助社區增強在組織和發展方面的能力。

市府為了達到這目的以及支援溫哥華作為一個和解城市所作的努力﹐特別成立了「唐人街經濟文化發展專案小組」﹐ 與社區持份者聯手制定保護和加強唐人街生活遺產和文化資產的策略。

Past Updates

Summer 2018

A Chinatown Transformation Team made up of City staff was created to support and develop a long-term Chinatown Living Heritage and Cultural Asset Management Plan.

Spring 2018

An official apology was delivered at a special Council meeting by the City of Vancouver to the local Chinese-Canadian community; on the same day, a special event was organized for Vancouverites to experience Chinatown and Chinese culture. 

Winter 2017

Research on discrimination by City Hall from 1886 to 1947 completed and staff recommendations presented to City Council. 

2015 – 2016

Completed initial consultations with local historians and people with lived experience and knowledge of historical discrimination.

2014

Council instructed staff to explore past discriminatory practices against people of Chinese descent between 1886 and 1947.

檢討進程﹕

2018 年夏季

成立由市府職員組成的「唐人街經濟文化發展專案小組」 ﹐以支援及制定一個長期的「唐人街生活遺產及文化遺產管理計劃」。

2018 年春季

溫哥華市政府在特別市議會上向本地華裔加人作出正式道歉﹐並在同日舉行盛大文娛活動﹐讓市民親身感受唐人街的氣息以及體驗中華文化。

2017 年冬季

職員完成在1886-1947年期間市府實施歧視華人政策的研究﹐並將報告呈交市議會。

2015 年– 2016年

市府完成向歷史學家及其他對歷史上歧視行為有親身經歷及認識人士進行的初步諮詢。

2014年

市府指示職員就1886-1947年期間發生的歧視華人行為展開研究工作。

Contact us 聯絡我們

Chinatown@vancouver.ca